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Case Studies, Action Plans and Projects

Explore heat health resources by location. Filter your results to narrow your search and learn more by clicking on the resource pins on the map.

Emerging climate change-related public health challenges in Africa: A case study of the heat-health vulnerability of informal settlement residents in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Heat has the potential to become one of the most significant public health impacts of climate change in the coming decades. Increases in temperature have been linked to both increasing mortality and morbidity. Cities have been recognized as areas of particular vulnerability to heat’s impacts on health, and marginalized groups, such as the poor, appear to have higher heat-related morbidity and mortality. Little research has examined the heat vulnerability of urban informal settlements residents in Africa, even though surface temperatures across Africa are projected to increase at a rate faster than the global average. This paper addresses this knowledge gap through a mixed-methods analysis of the heat-health vulnerability of informal settlement residents in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The heat exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity of informal settlement residents were assessed through a combination of climate analyses, semi-structured interviews with local government actors and informal settlement residents, unstructured interviews with health sector respondents, a health impacts literature review, and a stakeholder engagement workshop. The results suggest that increasing temperatures due to climate change will likely be a significant risk to human health in Dar es Salaam, even though the city does not reach extreme temperature conditions, because informal settlement residents have high exposure, high sensitivity and low adaptive capacity to heat, and because the heat-health relationship is currently an under-prioritized policy issue. While numerous urban planning approaches can play a key role in increasing the resilience of citizens to heat, Dar es Salaam’s past and current growth and development patterns greatly complicate the implementation and enforcement of such approaches. For African cities, the findings highlight an urgent need for more research on the vulnerability and resilience of residents to heat-health impacts, because many African cities are likely to present similar characteristics to those in Dar es Salaam that increase resident’s vulnerability.

La Plata Plan de Contingencia Hidrometeorológica (Hydrometeorological Contingency Plan)

La ciudad de La Plata y el Gran La Plata presentan una notoria vulnerabilidad ante eventos hidrometeorológicos severos, que se ve reflejada en el impacto que producen los mismos en la calidad de vida de sus habitantes, daños a bienes espacios públicos y privados. Para una adecuada Gestión Integral del Riesgo de Desastres en el Partido de La Plata, es necesario y prioritario establecer lineamientos para la Gestión de Emergencias, ya sean estas de origen Natural o Tecnológico. Este Plan General de Gestión de Emergencias -establecido a principios de 2014- tiene los siguientes objetivos:

Objetivo General:

  • Reconocer las amenazas de origen natural como las provocadas por la actividad de los seres humanos (tecnológicas).

Objetivos Específicos:

  • Identificar los actores y sectores involucrados en la gestión de emergencias.
  • Establecer roles y funciones para la gestión de emergencias.
  • Profundizar las estrategias de coordinación entre los organismos municipales, provinciales y nacionales involucrados en acciones de manejo de crisis (advertencia/alarma y respuesta) y rehabilitación ante un evento adverso.
  • Promover actividades de prevención y preparación comunitaria.
  • Indicar a la población las acciones a tomar Un Plan de Contingencia es un conjunto de procedimientos específicos que presentan una estructura estratégica y operativa contribuyentes a controlar una situación de emergencia y minimizar sus consecuencias negativas.

Surviving and thriving in the heat: evidencing heat impacts and management for exposed occupations in and beyond the workplace

Working people are particularly vulnerable to environmental heat. We will study the complex threat heat exposures pose to human health, wellbeing and productivity in working populations in Singapore and other tropical countries (Vietnam and Cambodia), and to identify sustainable preventive policies and actions that can reduce these impacts.

European Heat Health System

The Climate and Health Program (CLIMA) of the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) is working to build a prototype of heat health early warning system for Europe. This unified pan-European service will be adapted to all European societies by using daily meteorological and mortality data to account for the regional differences in human vulnerability and societal adaptation to climate variability and change. The development of this epidemiological surveillance tool is aimed at contributing to a better monitoring and forecasting system of temperature-related health risks. The system will provide more realistic warnings, raising awareness and support public health management and decision making.

Two-way effect modifications of air pollution and air temperature on total natural and cardiovascular mortality in eight European urban areas

Although epidemiological studies have reported associations between mortality and both ambient air pollution and air temperature, it remains uncertain whether the mortality effects of air pollution are modified by temperature and vice versa. Moreover, little is known on the interactions between ultrafine particles (diameter75th percentile), an increase of 10,000 particles/cm(3) in PNC corresponded to a 2.51% (95% CI: 0.39%, 4.67%) increase in cardiovascular mortality, which was significantly higher than that on days with low air temperatures (<25th percentile) [-0.18% (95% CI: -0.97%, 0.62%)]. On days with high air pollution (>50th percentile), both heat- and cold-related mortality risks increased. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that high temperature could modify the effects of air pollution on daily mortality and high air pollution might enhance the air temperature effects.

The Role of Fluid Temperature and Form on Endurance Performance in the Heat

Exercising in the heat often results in an excessive increase in body core temperature, which can be detrimental to health and endurance performance. Research in recent years has shifted toward the optimum temperature at which drinks should be ingested. The ingestion of cold drinks can reduce body core temperature before exercise but less so during exercise. Temperature of drinks does not seem to have an effect on the rate of gastric emptying and intestinal absorption. Manipulating the specific heat capacity of a solution can further induce a greater heat sink. Ingestion of ice slurry exploits the additional energy required to convert the solution from ice to water (enthalpy of fusion). Body core temperature is occasionally observed to be higher at the point of exhaustion with the ingestion of ice slurry. There is growing evidence to suggest that ingesting ice slurry is an effective and practical strategy to prevent excessive rise of body core temperature and improve endurance performance. This information is especially important when only a fixed amount of fluid is allowed to be carried, often seen in some ultra-endurance events and military operations. Future studies should evaluate the efficacy of ice slurry in various exercise and environmental conditions.

Responses to hyperthermia. Optimizing heat dissipation by convection and evaporation: Neural control of skin blood flow and sweating in humans

Under normothermic, resting conditions, humans dissipate heat from the body at a rate approximately equal to heat production. Small discrepancies between heat production and heat elimination would, over time, lead to significant changes in heat storage and body temperature. When heat production or environmental temperature is high the challenge of maintaining heat balance is much greater. This matching of heat elimination with heat production is a function of the skin circulation facilitating heat transport to the body surface and sweating, enabling evaporative heat loss.

These processes are manifestations of the autonomic control of cutaneous vasomotor and sudomotor functions and form the basis of this review. We focus on these systems in the responses to hyperthermia. In particular, the cutaneous vascular responses to heat stress and the current understanding of the neurovascular mechanisms involved. The available research regarding cutaneous active vasodilation and vasoconstriction is highlighted, with emphasis on active vasodilation as a major responder to heat stress. Involvement of the vasoconstrictor and active vasodilator controls of the skin circulation in the context of heat stress and nonthermoregulatory reflexes (blood pressure, exercise) are also considered. Autonomic involvement in the cutaneous vascular responses to direct heating and cooling of the skin are also discussed. We examine the autonomic control of sweating, including cholinergic and noncholinergic mechanisms, the local control of sweating, thermoregulatory and nonthermoregulatory reflex control and the possible relationship between sudomotor and cutaneous vasodilator function. Finally, we comment on the clinical relevance of these control schemes in conditions of autonomic dysfunction.

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses

Objective: To present best-practice recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses (EHIs) and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation.

Background: Certified athletic trainers recognize and treat athletes with EHIs, often in high-risk environments. Although the proper recognition and successful treatment strategies are well documented, EHIs continue to plague athletes, and exertional heat stroke remains one of the leading causes of sudden death during sport. The recommendations presented in this document provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and clinically applicable approach to the prevention, recognition, treatment of, and return-to-activity guidelines for EHIs. These recommendations are given so that proper recognition and treatment can be accomplished in order to maximize the safety and performance of athletes.

Recommendations: Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals should use these recommendations to establish onsite emergency action plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the appropriate prevention strategies, proper recognition tactics, and effective treatment plans for EHIs. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals must be properly educated and prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with these illnesses.

Exertional heat illness: emerging concepts and advances in prehospital care

Exertional heat illness is a classification of disease with clinical presentations that are not always diagnosed easily. Exertional heat stroke is a significant cause of death in competitive sports, and the increasing popularity of marathons races and ultra-endurance competitions will make treating many heat illnesses more common for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers. Although evidence is available primarily from case series and healthy volunteer studies, the consensus for treating exertional heat illness, coupled with altered mental status, is whole body rapid cooling. Cold or ice water immersion remains the most effective treatment to achieve this goal. External thermometry is unreliable in the context of heat stress and direct internal temperature measurement by rectal or esophageal probes must be used when diagnosing heat illness and during cooling. With rapid recognition and implementation of effective cooling, most patients suffering from exertional heat stroke will recover quickly and can be discharged home with instructions to rest and to avoid heat stress and exercise for a minimum of 48 hours; although, further research pertaining to return to activity is warranted.

To Cool, But Not Too Cool: That Is the Question-Immersion Cooling for Hyperthermia

Patient coolingtime can impact upon the prognosis of heat illness. Although ice-cold-water immersion will rapidly extract heat, access to ice or cold water may be limited in hot climates. Indeed, some have concerns regarding the sudden cold-water immersion of hyperthermic individuals, whereas others believe that cutaneous vasoconstriction may reduce convective heat transfer from the core. It was hypothesized that warmer immersion temperatures, which induce less powerful vasoconstriction, may still facilitate rapid cooling in hyperthermic individuals.

Heat Acclimation Decay and Re-Induction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Although the acquisition of heat acclimation (HA) is well-documented, less is known about HA decay (HAD) and heat re-acclimation (HRA). The available literature suggests 1 day of HA is lost following 2 days of HAD. Understanding this relationship has the potential to impact upon the manner in which athletes prepare for major competitions, as a HA regimen may be disruptive during final preparations (i.e., taper).

Physiological Responses to Heat Acclimation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of heat acclimatization (HA) on time trial (TT) performance, maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), exercise heart rate (HRE), time trials heart rate (HRTT), maximal heart rate (HRM), core temperature (TC), mean skin temperature (TS), thermal comfort (TComf), plasma volume (PV), blood lactate concentration and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). Cochrane-CENTRAL, EMBASE, CINAHL and PubMed databases and reference lists of included studies were searched for randomized controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of HA in athletes. Data were then extracted from the entered studies for analyses. A total of 11 randomised controlled trials (215 participants; mean age, 26.09 years; 91% men) were included after screening of 508 titles and abstracts and 19 full-text articles. The pooled standard mean difference (SMD) between the HA and non-HA groups were 0.50 (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.97, p = 0.04) for TT performance and 1 (95% CI: 1 to 2, p = 0.007) for HRTT. The pooled mean difference (MD) between the HA and non-HA groups were -7 (95% CI: -13 to -1, p = 0.03) for HRM. The changes in TComf and RPE were too small to be meaningful. There were no significant differences between the HA and non-HA groups for VO2max, HRE, TC, TS, PV and blood lactate concentration (all p > 0.05). This meta-analysis implies that HA may improve tolerance to discomfort during heat exposure, but may not necessarily improve the associated physiological markers of improved performance.

Ergogenic effects of precooling with cold water immersion and ice ingestion: A meta-analysis

This review evaluated the effects of precooling via cold water immersion (CWI) and ingestion of ice slurry/slushy or crushed ice (ICE) on endurance performance measures (e.g. time-to-exhaustion and time trials) and psychophysiological parameters (core [Tcore] and skin [Tskin] temperatures, whole body sweat [WBS] response, heart rate [HR], thermal sensation [TS], and perceived exertion [RPE]). Twenty-two studies were included in the meta-analysis based on the following criteria: (i) cooling was performed before exercise with ICE or CWI; (ii) exercise longer than 6 min was performed in ambient temperature ≥26°C; and (iii) crossover study design with a non-cooling passive control condition. CWI improved performance measures (weighted average effect size in Hedges’ g [95% confidence interval] + 0.53 [0.28; 0.77]) and resulted in greater increase (ΔEX) in Tskin (+4.15 [3.1; 5.21]) during exercise, while lower peak Tcore (-0.93 [-1.18; -0.67]), WBS (-0.74 [-1.18; -0.3]), and TS (-0.5 [-0.8; -0.19]) were observed without concomitant changes in ΔEX-Tcore (+0.19 [-0.22; 0.6]), peak Tskin (-0.67 [-1.52; 0.18]), peak HR (-0.14 [-0.38; 0.11]), and RPE (-0.14 [-0.39; 0.12]). ICE had no clear effect on performance measures (+0.2 [-0.07; 0.46]) but resulted in greater ΔEX-Tcore (+1.02 [0.59; 1.45]) and ΔEX-Tskin (+0.34 [0.02; 0.67]) without concomitant changes in peak Tcore (-0.1 [-0.48; 0.28]), peak Tskin (+0.1 [-0.22; 0.41]), peak HR (+0.08 [-0.19; 0.35]), WBS (-0.12 [-0.42; 0.18]), TS (-0.2 [-0.49; 0.1]), and RPE (-0.01 [-0.33; 0.31]). From both ergogenic and thermoregulatory perspectives, CWI may be more effective than ICE as a precooling treatment prior to exercise in the heat.

Precooling and percooling (cooling during exercise) both improve performance in the heat: a meta-analytical review

Exercise increases core body temperature (Tc), which is necessary to optimise physiological processes. However, excessive increase in Tc may impair performance and places participants at risk for the development of heat-related illnesses. Cooling is an effective strategy to attenuate the increase in Tc. This meta-analysis compares the effects of cooling before (precooling) and during exercise (percooling) on performance and physiological outcomes.

Fluid Balance and Hydration Considerations for Women: Review and Future Directions

Although it is well understood that dehydration can have a major impact on exercise performance and thermoregulatory physiology, the potential for interactions between female sex hormone influences and the impact of dehydration on these variables is poorly understood. Female reproductive hormonal profiles over the course of the menstrual cycle have significant influences on thermoregulatory and volume regulatory physiology. Increased insight into the interactions among dehydration and menstrual cycle hormonal influences may have important implications for safety, nutritional recommendations, as well as optimal mental and physical performance. The purpose of this review is to summarize what is known in this area and highlight the areas that will be important for future work.

Consensus Recommendations on Training and Competing in the Heat

Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimise performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimise performance is to heat acclimatise. Heat acclimatisation should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1–2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in a euhydrated state and minimise dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (eg, cooling-vest), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organisers should plan for large shaded areas, along with cooling and rehydration facilities, and schedule events in accordance with minimising the health risks of athletes, especially in mass participation events and during the first hot days of the year. Following the recent examples of the 2008 Olympics and the 2014 FIFA World Cup, sport governing bodies should consider allowing additional (or longer) recovery periods between and during events, for hydration and body cooling opportunities, when competitions are held in the heat.

Exertional Heat Illness during Training and Competition

Exertional heat illness can affect athletes during high-intensity or long-duration exercise and result in withdrawal from activity or collapse during or soon after activity. These maladies include exercise associated muscle cramping, heat exhaustion, or exertional heatstroke. While certain individuals are more prone to collapse from exhaustion in the heat (i.e., not acclimatized, using certain medications, dehydrated, or recently ill), exertional heatstroke (EHS) can affect seemingly healthy athletes even when the environment is relatively cool. EHS is defined as a rectal temperature greater than 40°C accompanied by symptoms or signs of organ system failure, most frequently central nervous system dysfunction. Early recognition and rapid cooling can reduce both the morbidity and mortality associated with EHS. The clinical changes associated with EHS can be subtle and easy to miss if coaches, medical personnel, and athletes do not maintain a high level of awareness and monitor at-risk athletes closely. Fatigue and exhaustion during exercise occur more rapidly as heat stress increases and are the most common causes of withdrawal from activity in hot conditions. When athletes collapse from exhaustion in hot conditions, the term heat exhaustion is often applied. In some cases, rectal temperature is the only discernable difference between severe heat exhaustion and EHS in on-site evaluations. Heat exhaustion will generally resolve with symptomatic care and oral fluid support. Exercise associated muscle cramping can occur with exhaustive work in any temperature range, but appears to be more prevalent in hot and humid conditions. Muscle cramping usually responds to rest and replacement of fluid and salt (sodium). Prevention strategies are essential to reducing the incidence of EHS, heat exhaustion, and exercise associated muscle cramping.

The Inter-Association Task Force Document on Emergency Health and Safety: Best-Practice Recommendations for Youth Sports Leagues

In an effort to improve the emergency health and safety best practices and policies in youth sport, this document was developed to serve as a road map for policy and procedure recommendations. It addresses the most common conditions resulting in sudden death and outlines recommended policies and procedures designed to improve youth sport safety.

Should Electric Fans Be Used During a Heat Wave?

Heat waves continue to claim lives, with the elderly and poor at greatest risk. A simple and cost-effective intervention is an electric fan, but public health agencies warn against their use despite no evidence refuting their efficacy in heat waves. A conceptual human heat balance model can be used to estimate the evaporative requirement for heat balance, the potential for evaporative heat loss from the skin, and the predicted sweat rate, with and without an electrical fan during heat wave conditions. Using criteria defined by the literature, it is clear that fans increase the predicted critical environmental limits for both the physiological compensation of endogenous/exogenous heat, and the onset of cardiovascular strain by an air temperature of ∼3-4 °C, irrespective of relative humidity (RH) for the young and elderly. Even above these critical limits, fans would apparently still provide marginal benefits at air temperatures as high as 51.1 °C at 10%RH for young adults and 48.1 °C at 10%RH for the elderly. Previous concerns that dehydration would be exacerbated with fan use do not seem likely, except under very hot (>40 °C) and dry (<10%RH) conditions, when predicted sweat losses are only greater with fans by a minor amount (∼20-30 mL/h). Relative to the peak outdoor environmental conditions reported during ten of the most severe heat waves in recent history, fan use would be advisable in all of these situations, even when reducing the predicted maximum sweat output for the elderly. The protective benefit of fans appears to be underestimated by current guidelines.

Efficacy of Heat Mitigation Strategies on Core Temperature and Endurance Exercise: A Meta-Analysis

A majority of high profile international sporting events, including the coming 2020 Tokyo Olympics, are held in warm and humid conditions. When exercising in the heat, the rapid rise of body core temperature (T c ) often results in an impairment of exercise capacity and performance. As such, heat mitigation strategies such as aerobic fitness (AF), heat acclimation/acclimatization (HA), pre-exercise cooling (PC) and fluid ingestion (FI) can be introduced to counteract the debilitating effects of heat strain. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of these mitigation strategies using magnitude-based inferences.

Heat wave and the risk of intimate partner violence

A high number of women report experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). It is of utmost importance to identify possible factors that precipitate IPV and incorporate them into police protocols for evaluating IPV risk. Scientific evidence shows that environmental temperature is associated with a risk of violent behavior. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effect and impact of heat waves on the risk of IPV. METHODS: Ecological, longitudinal time series study. The dependent variables are: intimate partner femicides (IPF), reports of IPV and 016 IPV telephone help line calls in the Community of Madrid from 05/01 to 09/30 in the years 2008-2016. The principal independent variable is the daily maximum temperature in Celsius (Tmax) above the heat wave threshold of 34 degrees C. A binomial negative regression was used for calls and reports and a Poisson regression was used for IPF. The attributable risk among those exposed (AR%) and the number of attributable cases was calculated for each variable. RESULTS: The risk of IPF increased three days after the heat wave, [RR(IC95%):1.40(1.00-1.97)], police reports of IPV increased one day after [RR (IC95%):1.02(1.00-1.03) and help line calls increased five days after [RR(IC95%):1.01(1.00-1.03)]. The AR% was 28.8% (IC95%: 0.3%-49.2%) for IPF, 1.7% (IC95%:0.3%-3.1%) for police reports and 1.43% (IC95:0.1%;2.8%) for help line calls. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that heat waves are associated with an increase in IPV. The effect of an increase in IPV is delayed in time, with differences according to the violence indicators analyzed.

Heat-related Training and Educational Material Needs among Oil Spill Cleanup Responders

Heat-related illness (HRI), injury, and death among oil spill cleanup responders can be prevented through training and educational materials. This study assessed heat-related training and educational materials currently used and desired by oil spill cleanup responders. A needs assessment was completed by 65 oil spill cleanup responders regarding their occupational heat-related experiences and training needs. Oil spill cleanup responders reported participating on average in 37 oil spill cleanup activities per year. Most reported experiencing additional HRI risk factors, such as high temperatures and humidity and wearing personal protective equipment and clothing ensembles, respirators, and personal flotation devices. Many reported experiencing symptoms of HRI (profuse sweating, headache, weakness, decreased urine output, high body temperatures) and experiencing heat exhaustion. Although multiple prevention controls were reported, only 1 in 4 reported using an acclimatization plan. The most common training delivery method and education received included just-in-time training and printed materials. The most desirable future training delivery methods and education products were smartphone or tablet applications, printed materials, and online training. Findings from this study may be beneficial to safety and health professionals and health educators, particularly those interested in developing heat stress training and educational materials for oil spill cleanup responders.

Humid heat waves at different warming levels

The co-occurrence of consecutive hot and humid days during a heat wave can strongly affect human health. Here, we quantify humid heat wave hazard in the recent past and at different levels of global warming. We find that the magnitude and apparent temperature peak of heat waves, such as the ones observed in Chicago in 1995 and China in 2003, have been strongly amplified by humidity. Climate model projections suggest that the percentage of area where heat wave magnitude and peak are amplified by humidity increases with increasing warming levels. Considering the effect of humidity at 1.5° and 2° global warming, highly populated regions, such as the Eastern US and China, could experience heat waves with magnitude greater than the one in Russia in 2010 (the most severe of the present era). The apparent temperature peak during such humid-heat waves can be greater than 55 °C. According to the US Weather Service, at this temperature humans are very likely to suffer from heat strokes. Humid-heat waves with these conditions were never exceeded in the present climate, but are expected to occur every other year at 4° global warming. This calls for respective adaptation measures in some key regions of the world along with international climate change mitigation efforts.

Implications for workability and survivability in populations exposed to extreme heat under climate change: a modelling study

Changes in temperature and humidity due to climate change affect living and working conditions. An understanding of the effects of different global temperature changes on population health is needed to inform the continued implementation of the Paris Climate Agreement and to increase global ambitions for greater cuts in emissions. By use of historical and projected climate conditions, we aimed to investigate the effects of climate change on workability (ie, the ability to work) and survivability (the ability to survive).

Public health vulnerability to heat-related impacts of climate change in Cyprus

This study investigates the heat-related impacts of climate change on public health in Cyprus. Most of the health problems in Cyprus and in the Mediterranean generally, are related mainly to the warming already occurred as well as to extreme weather events such as heatwaves. In addition projections indicate that warming and extreme events will increase in future posing serious threats on human health. For the investigation of the relationship bretween hot weather condition and mortality in Cyprus, a statistical model was constructed showing linear increase of mortality with increasing temperature. Humidex is also calculated, using outputs from several regional climate models. The analysis revealed a significant increase in the Humidex in future period mainly during summer months.

Quantifying excess deaths related to heatwaves under climate change scenarios: A multicountry time series modelling study

This study provides a comprehensive characterisation of future heatwave-related excess mortality across various regions and under alternative scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions, different assumptions of adaptation, and different scenarios of population change. The projections can help decision makers in planning adaptation and mitigation strategies for climate change.

Regional Characteristics of Heat-related Deaths and the Application of a Heat-health Warning System in Korea

We studied regional characteristics of mortality and meteorological conditions in Seoul and Busan during the extreme heat wave of 1994. We estimated the relationship between EHWS’s fixed criteria and observed deaths during 1991–2005. During the same period, HHWS’s warning criteria and observed excess deaths were calculated and compared to the EHWS’s to test the reliability of the system. Because of increasing urban vulnerability, the application and development of a heat warning system is imperative. Application of HHWS will reduce the urban health risks and provide efficient decision-making for public health officials.

Spatiotemporal influence of temperature, air quality, and urban environment on cause-specific mortality during hazy days

Haze is an extreme weather event that can severely increase air pollution exposure, resulting in higher burdens on human health. Few studies have explored the health effects of haze, and none have investigated the spatiotemporal interaction between temperature, air quality and urban environment that may exacerbate the adverse health effects of haze. We investigated the spatiotemporal pattern of haze effects and explored the additional effects of temperature, air pollution and urban environment on the short-term mortality risk during hazy days. We applied a Poisson regression model to daily mortality data from 2007 through 2014, to analyze the short-term mortality risk during haze events in Hong Kong. We evaluated the adverse effect on five types of cause-specific mortality after four types of haze event. We also analyzed the additional effect contributed by the spatial variability of urban environment on each type of cause-specific mortality during a specific haze event. A regular hazy day (lag 0) has higher all-cause mortality risk than a day without haze (odds ratio: 1.029 [1.009, 1.049]). We have also observed high mortality risks associated with mental disorders and diseases of the nervous system during hazy days. In addition, extreme weather and air quality contributed to haze-related mortality, while cold weather and higher ground-level ozone had stronger influences on mortality risk. Areas with a high-density environment, lower vegetation, higher anthropogenic heat, and higher PM2.5 featured stronger effects of haze on mortality than the others. A combined influence of haze, extreme weather/air quality, and urban environment can result in extremely high mortality due to mental/behavioral disorders or diseases of the nervous system. In conclusion, we developed a data-driven technique to analyze the effects of haze on mortality. Our results target the specific dates and areas with higher mortality during haze events, which can be used for development of health warning protocols/systems.

Temporal changes in mortality attributed to heat extremes for 57 cities in Northeast Asia

Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimise performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimise performance is to heat acclimatise. Heat acclimatisation should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1–2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in a euhydrated state and minimise dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (eg, cooling-vest), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organisers should plan for large shaded areas, along with cooling and rehydration facilities, and schedule events in accordance with minimising the health risks of athletes, especially in mass participation events and during the first hot days of the year. Following the recent examples of the 2008 Olympics and the 2014 FIFA World Cup, sport governing bodies should consider allowing additional (or longer) recovery periods between and during events, for hydration and body cooling opportunities, when competitions are held in the heat.

PREP: Protection Resilience Efficiency and Prevention for workers in industrial agriculture in a changing climate

For over three decades, an epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD), not related to well-known risk factors like diabetes and hypertension, and thus named CKD of unknown origin (CKDu) has been detected in agricultural and other heavy labourers in Central America, especially sugarcane workers. CKDu is also increasingly observed in manual rural workers in other hot regions, such as Sri Lanka, India, and Egypt.

There are probably multiple risk factors for CKDu, as for most non-communicable diseases, but there is a growing body of evidence that labour practices, specifically strenuous work in heat without sufficient rest or hydration, is an important driver of the disease. Thus, this disease can be seen as having a direct link to climate change and is likely to become even more prevalent in the near future unless workplace heat stress is mitigated. As a response to this disease, members of the current project consortia have collectively implemented the Adelante Initiative at a large sugarcane mill in Nicaragua. Adelante is a scientific evaluation of workplace interventions that focus on adequate water and rest in shade together with improved ergonomics, aiming to prevent CKDu in workers while preserving productivity. The PREP program will build on the Adelante Initiative and will have three different themes:

I. To evaluate the immediate and long-term impact of a Water, Rest, and Shade intervention on workforce health (kidney health and heat related symptoms) and productivity in the sugar industry;

II. To examine the economic and social impacts on individuals, families, communities, the company and health systems affected by CKDu and whether workplace interventions to reduce heat stress and the risk for CKDu aids resilience, including mitigating migration pressures;

III. To examine the policies, or absence of policies (at multiple administrative scales) that have contributed to the CKDu disease and what policies are required to effectively address it in a future changing climate.

This program is an interdisciplinary effort that brings together researchers with expertise in occupational hygiene, medicine, health economics, plus social and political sciences. The research methods range from advanced physiological measurements, focus groups and interviews, document analysis, to semi-structured interviews and participatory workshops. Using this coordinated, interdisciplinary approach we will evaluate how occupational health and safety interventions affects worker’s health at an individual level as well as the social and economic effects in the local community, and company return-of-investment.

Together with workers, management, certifying institutions, national authorities, and consumers we will build toolkits and educational materials for those affected and those wishing to improve protection for workers in industrial agricultural and other manual outdoor work. Our findings will be broadly shared via scientific communications, workshops with worker/management, production of web-based material, films for the general public, and collaboration with media. PREP will enhance our knowledge on risk factors for CKDu in industrial agricultural workers in a hot climate, and produce evidence-based toolkits and other educational material for prevention of heat stress and its consequences, directed to the industry, governments and other stakeholders. By furthering our understanding of where and who are affected, while providing viable solutions, we can help governments and industry take a proactive and cost-effective approach to address CKDu and its associated challenges. There is a need to demonstrate that such an investment will be more economical than suffering the social and economic impact of doing nothing or inadequately attempting to treat an issue that is likely to get worse in a warming world.

The effect of cool roofs on health, environmental and economic outcomes in rural Africa

The long-term research goal is to identify viable passive housing adaptation technologies with proven health and environmental benefits to reduce the burden of heat stress in communities affected by heat in Africa. As a next step towards this goal, the project proposes to conduct a household-randomized controlled trial (RCT) in Nouna, Burkina Faso to: (i) establish the effect of the cool roof on the primary endpoint heart rate (as an indicator of physiological stress) and (ii) quantify the effects of the cool roof on a range of secondary endpoints, including indoor temperature, indoor humidity, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, household energy consumption, and socioeconomic outcomes.

The High-Impact Weather Project (HIWeather)

The High-Impact Weather project (HIWeather) is a ten year activity within the World Weather Research Programme to promote cooperative international research to achieve a dramatic increase in resilience to high impact weather, worldwide, through improving forecasts for timescales of minutes to two weeks and enhancing their communication and utility in social, economic and environmental applications.

Urban health and climate resilience in India

This project aims to design an air pollution and heatwave management toolkit, school environmental monitoring program and engage with targeted national and city level governmental and non-governmental actors to support its uptake in development planning. The project is coordinated by Taru Leading Edge and ICLEI South Asia, in partnership with CDKN, and was launched in India in July 2019.

Urban Heat Island Community Science Campaigns

NOAA, in a public-private partnership with CAPA Strartegies, LLC, runs annual community science Urban Heat Island mapping campaigns in cities across the United States. Each year, lea organizations in cities apply for core support funding for this activity. Residents of participating cities use low-cost in-situ sensors attached to their cars to drive transects and sample urban temperatures at a height of 2m. The in-situ data are combined with satellite data in a machine learning model to develop an estimate of the urban heat island intensity across the city. The outputs of the project are open source, and the outcomes of the project include community science engagement, education, and usable datasets showing the distribution of urban heat island intensity across the city.

Weather and Climate Information Services for Africa

The UK Met Office’s Weather and Climate Information Services for Africa (WISER) programme’s mission is to make a step change in the quality, accessibility and use of weather and climate information services at all levels of decision making for sustainable development in Africa.

The Met Office has been commissioned by the UK government’s Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) to act as fund manager for the East Africa component of the programme, focussing on the Lake Victoria Basin and surrounding region (Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda). This component aims to improve the quality and relevance of weather and climate information and support its uptake and use.

Under the East Africa component five quick-start projects using WISER funding were commissioned in late 2015 and commenced work early in 2016. A further series of projects began in 2017. In the commissioning of new projects, applications will be invited to access WISER funding in line with the WISER strategy. Details of any open application rounds can be found on our WISER programme opportunities page.

For information on projects under the Policy & Enabling Environment Component (PEEC) please visit the ClimDev-Africa website.

World Weather Research Programme

The World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) is the WMO’s international programme for advancing and promoting research activities on weather, its prediction and its impact on society. The improvements in science and operational predictions are driven by international cooperation, and in turn international cooperation in weather science is a unique opportunity to drive sustainable development.

Yale Programme on Climate Change Communication

The Yale Programme on Climate Change Communication conducts scientific research on public climate change knowledge, attitudes, policy preferences, and behavior, and the underlying psychological, cultural, and political factors that influence them. They also engage the public in climate change science and solutions, in partnership with governments, media organizations, companies, and civil society, and with a daily, national radio program, Yale Climate Connections.

World Urban Database: Census of Global Cities

The World Urban Database and Access Portal Tools project is a community-based project to gather a census of cities around the world.

The overall aims of WUDAPT are to:

  • use the Local Climate Zone (LCZ) classification framework as the starting point for characterizing cities in a consistent manner
  • use Geo-Wiki to sample land cover and land use types across LCZs (e.g. impervious surfaces (buildings, roads, other), pervious surfaces, grassland, etc.)
  • develop tools (online and mobile-based) to obtain other parameters such as building materials, building dimensions, canopy widths, etc.
  • provide open access to this dataset so that researchers around the world can use the data for many different types of applications, from climate and weather modeling to energy balance studies
  • provide basic tools in the portal to allows researchers to aggregate the data to a user-specified reference grid (resolution and starting location) and compare cities around the world.

For WUDAPT to work, we need to build a community of interested urban experts and interested researchers who will take active part by:

  • using the training materials to classify your city into LCZs
  • contributing your LCZ map to WUDAPT
  • helping us to collect other parameters using the online and mobile-based tools that will be developed.

Electric vehicles’ health and climate benefits in China and India

Electric vehicles (EVs) are a promising solution for sustainable transport. However, making EVs a sustainable solution depends on a variety of factors such as the carbon footprint of the electricity mix.

We will focus on two major emerging markets – China and India – to investigate the conditions under which EVs can provide co-benefits for air quality, health and climate change. The growth of EVs relies on curbing the use of coal power plants, building new infrastructure and shifting consumer preferences. We will help develop solutions for these challenges by evaluating the relative importance of country-specific factors such as subsidies, regulations around EVs and the price of electricity. We will design a series of scenarios to represent these key factors and use an integrated assessment modelling method combining emissions analysis, air quality modelling and health impact assessment.

Our findings could inform policy to unlock the air quality, health and climate co-benefits of EVs in China and India.

Co-benefits of climate actions for air and health in India

Using an interdisciplinary modelling approach, this project will quantify the air quality and health co-benefits of mitigation and adaptation policies in Ahmedabad, India in collaboration with the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Gujarat Energy Research and Management Institute, Public Health Foundation of India and the Natural Resources Defense Council. It will estimate the total electricity demand in 2030, considering climate change and demand for air conditioning. It will model and compare air quality associated with two climate change response strategies: shifting fossil fuel use to solar energy; and expanding cool roof/green landcover interventions. It will also use air quality estimates to calculate health co-benefits in 2030, relative to a 2018 baseline and a 2030 business-as-usual scenario.

Evaluation of Heat Wave Related Mortality and Adaptation Measures in Switzerland

The heat wave in 2003 caused approximately 7% more deaths. As a result, the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health developed an information campaign for the behaviour during heat waves which has been adopted by various cantonal health authorities.

Objectives

1) Assessment of preventive measures which have been recommended or implemented by various stakeholders (communities, cantons, confederacy, MeteoSuisse, international authorities) to reduce heat-related mortality.

2) Analysis of the effect of heat waves on mortality in Switzerland on the basis of empirical data on a national level and stratified by region. The hypothesis will be tested the effect of comparable heat episodes on mortality is reduced since 2003.

3) Evaluation of regional adopted measures on the heat-related excess mortality in single cantons/regions where preventive measures have already been implemented.

4) Identification of the meteorological indicator which best describes the heat effect on mortality and identification of the highest groups at risk.

5) Preparation and dissemination of epidemiological studies on the topic for interested stakeholders with newsletters and workshops.

Methods

In a first step an assessment of the adopted and recommended measures aiming to reduce heat-related mortality will be executed. In a second step, Swiss mortality data (1990-2012) from the Federal Office of Statistics will be linked with the corresponding regional meteorological data provided by MeteoSwiss. The heat-related excess mortality will be investigated using Poisson regression analysis. Furthermore, various meteorological indicators will be investigated for the health effect of heat episodes. An important part of the project addresses the knowledge transfer. During the project, new relevant epidemiological studies will be identified, summarized and evaluated regarding to the practice. Information is made available to the relevant agencies and stakeholders by means of a newsletter.

Expectations

The project will provide an overview of adaptation measures for the prevention of heat-related mortality. It will show which meteorological parameters have the greatest effect on mortality and which age groups are particularly affected. The projects will generate evidence whether an increased sensitivity to the issue and adopted measures in the recent years had an impact on the extent of heat-related mortality.

EXHAUSTION project

The EXHAUSTION project aims to quantify the changes in cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity due to extreme heat and air pollution (including from wildfires) under selected climate scenarios.

EXHAUSTION will address key knowledge gaps as listed by IPCC, including the following:

  • Published health risk projections do not properly account for adaptation.
  • There is a lack of knowledge and appropriate models regarding possible interactive effects of extreme heat and air pollution.
  • Quantitative projections of the costs associated with the health risks are suffering from a simplified modelling of the complex relationship between climatic and non-climatic factors, human health, and the socio-economic consequences.

EXHAUSTION will advance on these issues–adaptation, interactive effects, and socio-economic costs – and quantify the changes in cardiopulmonary disease under selected climate scenarios while including a diverse set of adaptation mechanisms and measures, calculate the associated costs, and identify effective interventions for minimizing adverse impacts. The EXHAUSTION consortium is multidisciplinary, encompassing specialists in climate and air quality modelling, cardiopulmonary medicine, epidemiology, health impact assessment, economics, and science communication. Moreover, the Consortium is pan-European, with participation of 14 partners from 10 countries in Europe and representing the territories subject of study in the project.

EXHAUSTION is a EU-funded research project led by CICERO Center for International Climate Research (Norway), and includes 13 other research institutions and partners: University of Oslo (Norway), Norwegian Institute of Public Health (Norway), Aarhus University (Denmark), Helmholtz Zentrum München (Germany), University of Porto (Portugal), National Meteorological Administration (Romania), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (Greece), London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK), Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research (Luxembourg), Department of Epidemiology of the Lazio Region Health Service in Roma (Italy), Finnish Meteorological Institute (Finland), InfoDesignLab AS (Norway), DRAXIS Environmental S.A. (Greece).

Extrema

EXTREMA’s main objectives are to raise awareness, facilitate prevention and protect health from the adverse effects of climate change. EXTREMA is a DG ECHO funded project, 2018-2019, GA 783180.

Forecast-based Financing to Reduce Heatwave Vulnerability in Hanoi, Vietnam

The project focuses on heat waves in Hanoi and is the first FbF project to focus on extreme events in urban areas. In Hanoi the average daily temperatures have risen in recent years; past heatwaves have led to a 20.0% increase in hospital admissions for all causes and 45.9% for respiratory diseases. One main element of the project is the identification of early actions that can reduce these health impacts of heatwaves, with a special focus on groups that are particularly affected like the elderly. Research, consultation with experts and field assessments are currently under way.

HEAT-SHIELD

The Horizon 2020 research project is dedicated to address the negative impact of increased workplace heat stress on the health and productivity of five strategic European industries: manufacturing, construction, transportation, tourism and agriculture.

Managing heat stress among Bangladesh ready-made clothing industry workers

This study is exploring how low- to moderate-cost interventions can alleviate the impact of high temperatures and humidity in ready-made garment factories in preparation for further climate change. It compares the use of green or white roofs and actively-managed fan-assisted cross-ventilation, compared to no interventions and air-conditioning. Climate-controlled chambers, computer-based modelling temperature monitoring, and worker interviews will be used to explore perceptions of discomfort caused by heat. Findings will help estimate when it will be necessary to invest in interventions and how effective they can be.

MCC Collaborative Research Network

The Multi-City Multi-Country (MCC) network is an international collaboration of research teams working on a program aiming to produce epidemiological evidence on associations between weather and health. Interest on this topic has grown in the last few years among both researchers and the general public, due to recent events of extreme weather and alarming climate change scenarios, both linked with increased health risks.The research program benefits from the use of the largest dataset ever assembled for this purpose, including information from hundreds of locations within several countries. This allows standardized analyses on local data to address specific research questions on global weather-health associations, following a formalized yet flexible method of collaboration. The MCC network has developed during the years, through correspondence between the participants and additional meetings held at other scientific conferences.

Methods and tools to integrate air quality and health into urban climate action planning

Many greenhouse gas mitigation actions also benefit air quality and health but assessment of these co-benefits has been limited. Over the next several years, C40 Cities will be working with city governments to develop climate action plans. They will integrate a screening-level air quality model focusing on particulate matter into C40’s climate action planning tool, Pathways, for at least three pilot cities. They will test the tool to explore air quality and health co-benefits of climate action pathways. We will also assess the potential for quantifying additional health co-benefits, such as changes in ozone, nitrogen dioxide levels, physical activity, noise and green space. Data and tools will be publicly available to support additional research into links between climate and health. Their work will build a bridge between scientific evidence on co-benefits to the largest urban climate action planning effort worldwide. Pathways will create a platform to study more cities and enable long-term integration of health co-benefits into climate action planning in cities.

Mitigation of climate change-induced occupational health and productivity problems

This project will study the complex threat heat exposures pose to human health, wellbeing and productivity in working populations in Singapore and other tropical countries, and to identify sustainable preventive policies and actions that can reduce these impacts. Working people are particularly vulnerable to environmental heat because of their added internal heat production from muscle work. Singapore’s equatorial location means working populations are already chronically exposed to hot conditions (WBGT > 25°C) which are considered detrimental to health and wellbeing. These conditions require people working or engaged in exercise outdoors to take frequent rest and cooling breaks to protect health, If workers cannot or do not take rest in relation to heat stress, serious health effects can occur, including heat stroke death. Such conditions also affect productivity, which is reduced by 15% of potential annual work hours in the sun and by 4% if working in the shade.

Singapore has begun to tackle these issues by supporting mitigation and adaptation to extreme heat associated with climate change and with the urban heat island effect through research focused on public health and urban design. However, heat-health is a complex socioenvironmental problem that transgresses institutional, sectoral and disciplinary boundaries of public and occupational health and the domains of workplace, public space and the home. As such, there is a need to complement these efforts through the provision of a programme focussed on occupational exposures and their knock-on effects to support the overall effectiveness of Singaporean investments in heat-health risk management. Exposed work occurs in outdoor settings, but semi-enclosed workspaces, such as sheds or roofed workshops, can also present very hot thermal environments where cooling systems are inefficient, air conditioning cannot be used for financial or other reasons, and/or additional heat sources are present. These conditions are typical of many industries, including construction, shipping and utilities, including oil and gas transport and storage.

There is also limited evidence available concerning occupational heat exposures, and the impact of age, body mass index, physical fitness, and sex (e.g. pregnancy) on these effects, or their broader effects, such as prolonged discomfort, and mental stress, familial relationships and special health concerns, such as fertility. Improved knowledge is essential for the development of effective prevention programs. The researchers will pursue a multi-disciplinary approach uniquely positioned to address direct occupational heat exposures and impacts on health and productivity, but also the broader health and wellbeing implications that have yet to be comprehensively addressed in chronically heat-exposed countries such as Singapore. For example, physical fitness is one of the best ways of increasing heat tolerance as well as overall health. Ironically, the high heat levels in Singapore do not only discourage engagement in physical exercise, but can also be a direct health threat for people involved in sports and exercise. We will also review and test methods for analysing the most extreme effects of heat, including heat related mortality.

By following impacts on workers as well as workplaces, the study will trace how heat-health impacts emerge through exposure and exertion as a result of behaviours shaped by the climatic, urban, occupational and social environments they traverse every day. Such integrated analysis is required in order to develop policy responses that take into account the spatial and social situation of why heat-health impacts occur and how they can be managed as part of the everyday lives of chronically exposed populations. This also allows for the identification, analysis and management of ‘knock-on’ effects of occupational heat exposures on recreational and domestic life (and vice versa), including psychosocial and physiological impacts on exercise behaviours and fitness, family relationships, mental health and wellbeing and fertility rates. As our focus is on heat effects on working people, one secondary outcome of excessive heat exposure will be economic losses at individual, enterprise, community and national level due to a reduction of labour productivity due to heat. Our analysis will compare such economic impacts of heat to the costs of potential methods for climate change mitigation in selected countries. This will provide new estimates of the value of different alternatives in future climate change policy development.

Hermosillo, Mexico, Captures Heat-Related Illnesses at Medical Facilities Using New Database

Working with Cofepris, the Ministry of Health, and the CEC, Sonora’s regional health authority (Comisión Estatal de Protección contra Riesgos Sanitarios del Estado de Sonora—Coesprisson) established several objectives with the goal of creating a real-time SyS system for the city of Hermosillo in a 2016 pilot SyS project that would enable timely identification of health impacts due to extreme temperature and evidence-based policy development to reduce mortality and morbidity rates.

How hot will it be? Translating climate model outputs for public health practice in the United States

What meteorological factors are going to change? How much will they change? Will there be spatial variation? These are foundational issues for public health agencies in preparing for the impacts of climate change. In the wake of the Building Resilience Against Climate Effects (BRACE) framework developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), health agencies in the United States are using forecasted meteorological data to monitor health vulnerabilities across populations and places resulting from climate change.

Knowing When Cold Winters And Warm Summers Can Reduce Ambulatory Care Performance In London

As part of a climate change risk assessment, Public Health England took the initiative to analyse the impact of cold winters and warm summers on the number of ambulance call-outs and ambulance response times in London. This study is the first of its kind in the United Kingdom. Initial findings show that there is a clear relationship between air temperature and emergency ambulance calls.

Managing health impacts of heat in South East Queensland, Australia

Heatwaves kill more people than any other natural hazard in Australia. Current literature on managing health risks of heatwaves highlights the importance of implementing urban planning measures, and engaging with vulnerable groups on a local level to better understand perceptions of risk and tailor health protection measures. This paper reviews arrangements to reduce heatwave health risks in South East Queensland in response to these themes. A literature search and document analysis, stakeholder interviews, and multi-stakeholder cross-sectoral workshops revealed that although heatwave management is not always considered by local government and disaster management stakeholders, many urban planning measures to minimize urban heat have been pursued. However, greater information from vulnerable groups is still needed to better inform heatwave management measures.

Supreme: An Integrated Heat Health Warning System For Quebec

The SUPREME system, developed by the INSPQ in 2010 together with a users committee, provides access to indicators that relate exposure to hazards (temperatures, urban heat islands, etc.), socioeconomic characteristics of neighbourhoods (population density, deprivation index, etc.), health problems (deaths, emergency room admissions, etc.), and follow-up during and after an intervention by field teams. Post-event reports are produced regionally and aggregated annually.

Tatabánya, Hungary, addressing the impacts of urban heat waves and forest fires with alert measures

The City of Tatabánya has an approved comprehensive adaptation strategy, the Local Climate Change Action Plan, that is in its implementation stage. This Plan is based upon a comprehensive approach taking into consideration both mitigation and adaptation, incorporating climate considerations into decision-making, and including adaptation concerns in municipal processes. At this time, three measures have been implemented: (1) a local heat alert system; (2) the Smart Sun Educational Programme; and (3) building capacity of the fire brigade.

Cincinnati's Urban Canopy Policy

Cincinnati created a dedicated funding stream for its urban forestry program in 1981 that has enabled the city to maintain
a high percentage of its tree canopy. Heat mitigation is a key reason tree canopy is a priority. Although Cincinnati has a temperate climate and harsh, cold winters, the urban heat island effect can make the city up to 17°F hotter than nearby
rural areas during the summer.

Cool Neighborhoods NYC

Cool Neighborhoods NYC is a strategy developed by the Mayor’s Office of Resiliency to provide and target additional funding and to coordinate multiple extreme heat mitigation and adaptation projects. The objective of Cool Neighborhoods NYC is to “help keep New Yorkers safe during hot weather, mitigate urban heat island effect drivers and protect against the worst impacts of rising temperatures from climate change.”

Cool surfaces: roofs and roads

Los Angeles is the first U.S. city to set a citywide temperature reduction goal, and switching to cool surfaces is a key strategy for achieving that goal. Los Angeles’s goal is to reduce the urban heat island effect by 1.7°F by 2025 and average temperature 3°F by 2035, but the city is 40 percent covered by pavement. Los Angeles’s reflective paving program, which targets both rooftops and public streets, complements other UHI reduction programs including a Million Trees initiative and integrated planning with the Department of Health.

Creating a Model Climate Resilient City

The City of Long Beach, California, sees signs of climate change on land and in the ocean. After compiling the City’s official climate assessment report, local stakeholders also produced a more accessible and user-friendly summary version and shared it broadly to stimulate informed discussion and decision making across the city.

Green Roof Bylaw and Eco-roof incentive

Toronto was the first city in North America to require and govern the construction of green roofs on new development. The Green Roof Bylaw (which includes a Green Roof Construction Standard) and the parallel Eco-Roof Incentive Program are responsible for more than 1.2 million square feet of new green space, an estimated reduction in citywide temperature, and widespread promotion of cool roofs.

Heat Wave And Health Risk Early Warning Systems In China

This project, which is part of a broader WHO/UNDP Global Environment Facility (GEF)-funded project, developed and implemented a heatwave early warning system to reduce the health risks and to increase the capacity of health systems and community residents to prepare for and cope with periods of extreme temperatures. The project was piloted in four cities: Harbin, Nanjing, Shenzhen and Chongqing, located in different climate zones within China.

Upcoming Events

Race to Zero Climate & Health Dialogue

Nov 9, 2020

The Race to Zero Climate & Health Dialogue on November 9th 2020 will bring local to global actors together to place health and equity at the center of ambitious climate action. Through a series of virtual events, hosted throughout a 24-hour period, the dialogue will envision how a healthy, equitable recovery from COVID-19 can drive rapid decarbonization of the world economy. [br] The climate & health dialogue will present initiatives, case-studies and interventions for a healthy, climate-resilient and climate-just future across several priority areas of action: Adaptation & resilience; Nature; Energy transition; Zero carbon road transport; and Finance.

This virtual event will take place on November 9, as a part of the November Race to Zero Dialogues organized by UNFCCC in partnership with the High-Level Climate Champions. It will pave the way to the 2021 Global Conference on Health and Climate Change and the COP26 UN climate change conference to be held in Glasgow, UK in November 2021. [br] The event is organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with Race to Zero, the Global Climate and Health Alliance (GCHA), the Wellcome Trust, Glasgow Caledonian University and its Centre for Climate Justice, the UK Health Alliance on Climate Change, and the Centre on Climate Change and Planetary Health of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. [br] Session speakers will include representatives from cities, regions, businesses and civil society from sectors such as health, biodiversity, transport, economy and energy, as well as scientists, policy makers, celebrities, local authorities and mayors, government representatives, representatives from vulnerable communities and youth leaders. [br] For any questions regarding this event, please contact the WHO climate team.

Introductory Webinar: Satellite Remote Sensing for Urban Heat Islands

Nov 10, 2020 - Nov 24, 2020

November 10, 17, & 24, 2020 10:00-11:30 EST (Session A) or 16:00-17:30 EST (Session B) The rapid growth of urban populations, the urban heat island (UHI) effect, and a potential increase in the frequency and duration of heat waves due to climate change, raise a series of issues about the increased health risks of sensitive urban populations to extreme heat and the effective means of mitigating impacts of heat waves. According to the US EPA, urban heat islands affect energy consumption, elevate greenhouse gas emissions, and impair water quality by increasing the temperature of urban water runoff. This will be ARSET's first training on UHI and will be in collaboration with the National Integrated Heat Health Information System (NIHHIS) and the Global Heat Health Information Network (GHHIN). This training will address the use of remote sensing in determining where "hot spots" of land surface temperature are located in urban areas, why these areas are experiencing increased temperature, which populations are most vulnerable, and ways to mitigate the effects through adaptive land use planning.

2nd Global Forum on Heat and Health

Postponed to 2021

The 2nd Global Heat Health Forum, originally scheduled for July 28-31 in Copenhagen, will be postponed until 2021. Virtual events were held in summer 2020 in lieu of the in-person Forum.  

Adaptation Futures 2020

Postponed to 2021

The Energy and Resources Institute will co-host the Adaptation Futures 2020 with the World Adaptation Science Programme (WASP) in Delhi from 28 September - 1 October, 2020. It is the sixth in the Adaptation Futures international conference series on global adaptation and the first to be held in Asia. Adaptation Futures is the flagship event of the World Adaptation Science Program, which is one of the four components of World Climate Programme (WCP) based on the World Meteorological Organization Congress XVI Resolution 18. As a premier event in the global adaptation spectrum, Adaptation Futures is a unique platform to facilitate dialogues towards action oriented solutions from a diverse range of stakeholders that includes academia, practitioners, scientists and policy makers from across the world.


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Manage and Adapt to Extreme Heat

In the Body

01

At Home

02

02

In the City

03

At Work

04

04

In Sports

06

Information & Resources

Technical Brief

Guidance

Heatwave Guide for Cities

Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre

In Partnership With: